Purwakarta - Exclusive From Cooking Oil
Definition of Oil
Oil is a general term for all organic liquids that are insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but soluble in organic solvents. There is another additional property that is known to the layman: it feels slippery when held. In a narrow sense, the word 'oil' usually refers to petroleum (petroleum) or its refined products. Can also refer to use for cooking needs such as cooking oil.
Types of Oil
Judging from its origin there are three major classes of oil:
1. Oil produced by plants (vegetable oil)
2. Animal oil (animal oil),
3. Oil obtained from mining activities (petroleum).
In this article, we will discuss vegetable oil specifically, namely cooking oil and its process.
Chinese people have known cooking oil for a long time. Ancient Chinese people used cooking oil from meat fat for cooking. The fat used comes from beef, pork, to lamb. They will use different fats in different seasons.
During the San Guo Dynasty, ancient Chinese people began to switch to using cooking oil made from sesame seeds. The oil is touted as the world's first vegetable oil. Until now, sesame oil is still used by the Chinese people as a food ingredient because of its distinctive aroma.
Over time, vegetable oils underwent many developments and began to give rise to new variations. One of them, soybean oil used during the Song Dynasty and peanut oil during the Qing Dynasty. Then, in western countries people use vegetable oil made from cotton seeds and switch to using soybeans after the plant enters America.
Cooking oil also entered the archipelago. No one knows for sure when cooking oil began to be used by the people of Indonesia. However, since the first our ancestors have known coconut oil as a food ingredient. This is based on the large number of coconut trees that grow in the plains of Indonesia, so that people used to use them as raw materials for making oil.
History is colored by slavery
According to the encyclopedia Britannica, palm oil has long been a staple in a region that stretches from Senegal to Angola along the west coast of Africa.
Palm oil entered the global economic landscape around the 1500s, as it was widely used by transatlantic slave-trafficking ships.
During voyages across the Atlantic, palm oil was a precious food that kept the captives alive.
In fact, the traders also smear the skin of the captives with palm oil to make it look smooth, shiny, and young before being auctioned off.
Meaning of cooking oil
Cooking oil is oil derived from vegetable materials that have undergone a purification process and are liquid at room temperature. Cooking oil can be produced from crops such as palm oil, seeds, nuts, corn and soybeans. Cooking oil that is often used by the wider community for frying food ingredients is cooking oil that is sourced from palm oil.
The main ingredient for making cooking oil is mostly palm oil. Then what is the manufacturing process?
The process of making palm cooking oil.
1. Palm Fruit Collection
At this stage, the mature oil palm is taken. This harvesting process is called the collection of fresh fruit bunches or FFB. Selection of fruit is very necessary to create cooking oil with good quality. The fruit is transported by truck, and immediately brought to the factory. Palm oil processing should be carried out in a factory using machines that have good pressing strength. This is so that the oil produced is also of good quality. When the FFB has entered the factory, the FFB is then weighed to see the capacity of the oil that will be produced.
2. Boiling Palm Fruit
After being weighed, then the fruit is boiled using hot steam at a pressure of 2.2 to 3 kg per cm. This boiling process takes 90 minutes. Boiling is useful for killing enzymes that will damage the finished product of the oil. In addition, to make it easier when squeezing the fruit to take the oil. Boiling the fruit also makes it easier to remove the core of the fruit from the shell. Fruit that has been boiled will produce oil with a level of 0.5 percent. The boiled fruit will then be taken to the next stage.
3. Threshing Fruit
The oil palm fruit that is brought into the mill is still attached to the stalk. Therefore, the fruit must be removed from the stalk first. The fruit has been boiled, it becomes easier to remove from the stalk. How to knock the fruit from the stem using the slamming method. After the fruit is removed from the stalk, the fruit is put into the therser machine. This machine serves to separate the fruit from the brondong. The process of using this therser machine takes two processing times. This is so that the fruit is completely clean of the stalks and brondongs. The result of this processing is the peeled flesh of the fruit and can be squeezed at a later stage.
4. Squeezing Flesh
Before the fruit is squeezed, it must first remove the fruit seeds from the fruit flesh. It uses a vapor pressure of between 80 and 90 degrees. After the fruit has been separated from the seeds, then the fruit is put into a compressing machine. At this stage requires additional heat of about 10 to 15 percent of the capacity of the compressor. The end result of this compression is crude oil which is still mixed with fruit flesh or fruit pulp.
5. Coarse Oil Filter
The oil produced by the compressor is crude oil. Therefore, to produce pure oil, this crude oil must be filtered first. In this process, crude oil is put into the crude oil tank. Inside this container, there is a sand filter that separates the dregs and oil. The waste collected in the filter will be processed again, because it still contains oil in this processing using a depericarper machine. In this process, hot water is needed to facilitate the processing of dregs into oil. In this process, because it uses water, the result that comes out is water mixed with oil.
6. Separation of Oil with Water
In this process, the oil that has been mixed with water must be separated. This separation process must be sequential and in accordance with the existing oil content. In addition, it must be in accordance with the oil phases. In the light phase, the contents are oil, water, and the density of oil is accommodated in a continuous setting tank. Then the oil content will be brought to the oil tank. Meanwhile, the heavy phase containing oil, water, and heavy mass is accommodated in the sludge tank and then taken to the sludge separator to separate the oil and water. The end result of both processes is oil, which is then purified.
7. Oil Refining
The oil that has separated from the water is not 100% completely separated from the water. This requires a purification process to completely remove the water in the oil. To be able to purify the oil, the oil is brought into a vacuum drier. The function of this machine is to remove the water contained in the oil to a minimum value or below the threshold. After going through the vacuum drier process, the oil that has become pure oil is put into the oil storage tank to be taken to the packaging section.
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How to use it well
Research conducted by scientists at the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) found that this oil that has changed color, aroma and taste contains various compounds that are harmful to health. Preferably, cooking oil is not used more than 3 times.
After three uses or signs of oil changing color and aroma, the oil should be discarded or used for other things as long as it is not for consumption. Come on ladies, be wiser in cooking and produce healthy and beneficial food for health.
When used many times, cooking oil will produce toxins that are harmful to the body. "Generally after three uses, there will be a change in color and aroma of the oil which is not good when used," explained Prof. Ahmad Sulaiman.
Hopefully this article is useful.
Thank you, Keep Smiling (人 •͈ᴗ•͈)
Hart H. 1983. Organic Chemistry, a Short Course, 6th Edition. Michigan State University, Houghton Mifflin Co.